The immune system is composed of various types of specialized cells, proteins, tissues and organs. Its main function is the detection of harmful microorganisms and their destruction.
When the immune system incorrectly detects a particular allergen as harmful, then even though the allergen is not hazardous to the body, immune responses are activated to destroy the “harmful pathogen”. In this case, it is a hypersensitivity reaction type 1, or an allergic reaction – allergy.
The most common triggers for an allergic reaction are:
A particular group of people develop an allergic reaction in the sting of certain insects (bees, axes, strings, etc.) in response to their poison. Symptoms of an allergic reaction may be different – from slight redness and small swelling at the site of the sting, to nausea, fatigue and mild fever, and in some cases to anaphylaxis.
Anaphylaxis is an acute allergic reaction caused by the antigen (in this case, the in vivo) in which the body is hypersensitive. Symptoms include swelling of the face, tongue, mouth and throat, wheezing, low blood pressure, itching and skin color changes, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, dizziness and loss of consciousness. If left untreated, anaphylaxis can result in death.
In most people there is a reaction of the organism to certain food products, and often the reason for this reaction is food allergy, which in most cases is not true. Therefore, a distinction should be made between food allergy and food intolerance.
Food allergy is a hypersensitivity reaction mediated by the immune system, which is a response to a particular type of food. Symptoms are more pronounced, and in some cases life-threatening. Swelling of the mouth, tongue and throat, tingling of the tongue, skin changes, and the development of anaphylactic reaction may occur.
Food intolerance is a non-allergic hypersensitivity reaction that is generally not responsible for the immune system. It is characterized by symptoms that are less serious and are usually associated with the digestive system.
The most common nutritional allergens for our region are: eggs, milk, peanuts, wheat flour, soy beans, carrots, strawberries, fish, etc.
Symptoms of pollen allergic reactions are usually not life-threatening, but not least not pleasant. Sneezing, runny nose (rhinorrhoea), clogged nose (nasal congestion), itching and tearing of the eyes are just some of the symptoms that people who suffer from this type of allergy cope. (How to protect yourself from pollen?)
Drug allergy is more prevalent than is assumed. Most often, if an allergic reaction to a particular drug occurs, a discontinuation of its use is advised. If it is necessary to receive the drug, the doctor will require an appropriate replacement. In case there is no substitute for the drug, the allergic reaction can be controlled with antihistamines and corticosteroids, but only if a mild clinical picture preceded it.
The most common symptoms are skin changes, swelling of the face, wheezing and anaphylaxis.
People who develop allergic reactions to animals are actually allergic to proteins found in skin cells (most commonly dead skin cells – dandruff), saliva and urine of the animal. In certain cases, this type of allergy develops takes longer (up to 2 years), and symptoms can last for months.
Most commonly, symptoms of animal allergy are similar to pollen-like symptoms, but there may be symptomatic symptoms with more intense intensity such as wheezing, chest tightness, lack of air during sleep, etc.
There are several types of molds, and many people develop allergic reactions. The molds require humidity, so they occur in places where there is moisture, such as the bathroom, the cellar, the kitchen, the attic, the places where there is a cracked water pipe, places with grass or clumps of dried wet leaves, and so on. Symptomatology is similar to the pollen and domestic dust allergy.