Pregnancy is a special period of the life of a woman who is associated with many bodily and emotional changes. In order to preserve the health of the pregnant woman, but also to give birth to a healthy child, in this period it is necessary for the woman’s diet to undergo some changes.
The ideal limit for the mass of a woman who wants to become pregnant is optimal, with a body mass index (BMI) between 20 and 26. During pregnancy, the mother’s diet should be carefully planned in order to satisfy the increased nutritional needs of the mother, to ensure proper growth and development of the fetus. Insufficient, as well as excessive food intake can be harmful both for the health of the pregnant woman and for the condition of the child at birth.
The biggest myth about the diet of pregnant women is that they should eat for two. They should not eat twice as much of it as before, but the food they eat should be healthy and rich with the necessary nutrients. The diet nutrition ratio during pregnancy should be the same as for adults and healthy people, 60% of the energy should be provided by carbohydrates, 30% fat and only 10% of proteins. Protein requirements have been increased due to incorporation in new tissues, therefore in both the mother and the fetus, and proteins with high biological value and utilization should be introduced. To this end, milk, eggs, meat and soybeans should be included in the diet, such as foods containing high biological value proteins.
Vitamins and minerals
The needs of vitamins and minerals have increased during pregnancy due to higher energy intake and to ensure the growth and development of the fetus. At the beginning of pregnancy, the pregnant woman is prescribed to take folic acid, which is necessary for cell division, for the formation of the brainstem, but also protects the fetus from malformations. In addition to the tablets available in each pharmacy, folic acid can be fed through a diet rich in leafy vegetables such as spinach, cauliflower, cabbage, etc. Foods of animal origin which are rich in folic acid are: liver, egg yolk, kidneys.
Vitamin C is important for the development of bone and connective tissue as well as for the synthesis of collagen. Daily 200mg needs are achieved through the introduction of fruits and vegetables and it is usually not necessary to add additional supplements. A common occurrence in pregnancy is iron deficiency, which is accompanied by the risk of premature labor and low body weight of the newborn. Often women start pregnancy with small iron stores, so the deficit quickly comes to the fore. Also, the needs are greater due to the synthesis of hemoglobin and other iron-containing proteins. Iron needs in pregnancy are twice as high as in women who are not pregnant, so despite careful selection of groceries, it is sometimes necessary to use supplements. Vegetables and flesh are the main sources of iron.
What should be avoided during pregnancy?
Crossing the placenta, the alcohol that the labor brings directly affects all the organs of the fetus. The drug tolerates alcohol well because it has an enzyme system that is sufficiently developed to activate the breakdown of alcohol, but its baby is exposed to high levels of alcohol in the blood because the enzyme system is not sufficiently developed to dissolve toxins of alcohol. In this way, alcoholic embryopathy occurs with all possible bodily and mental disorders.
In pregnancy, the amount of caffeine should be controlled in the body, their amount should not exceed 300mg daily. One cup of coffee or tea in the day is quite enough.
During pregnancy should be limited the intake of cholesterol in the body, as well as some species of fish such as a shark and sword that contain amalgam which can be harmful. Every pregnant woman should avoid cigarettes because the effects on the fetus are harmful. In pregnant women, there are more frequent bleeding in the first trimester, but spontaneous abortions are common in this period. Cigarettes affect the placental blood flow and reduce blood flow through the umbilical cord, thereby reducing the diet of the fetus. Moms who smoke are more likely to give birth to babies with insufficient growth and development, but also with disturbed breathing capacity.